If you are a gardening enthusiast, tilling your garden to prepare it for planting must be a familiar task, especially during springtime or summertime. You can perform tilling manually or by hand. However, this technique can take much of your valuable time. Besides, you may find manual tilling of your lawn quite tedious.
Therefore, the solution is for you to purchase one of the best garden tillers available today. If you are a novice gardener and are unfamiliar with this gardening machine, you may wonder what it is precisely. A garden tiller or rototiller is a heavy-duty machine. After winter, gardeners utilize it to dig, mix, and break up hard and compact soil into loose dirt. This broken-up soil is, therefore, ready to use for planting.
As you can see, a garden tiller is a piece of ideal gardening equipment that prepares your lawn for planting as spring and summer arrive. Additionally, it is the gardening maintenance machine for aerating or introducing the air, water, and nutrients essential for your lawn’s soil. Garden tillers ensure that your garden’s soil is fertile. They come in various models, consisting of battery-powered, gas-powered, and electric machines.
This article features eight of the best garden tillers available today. If you search for this piece of gardening equipment and need assistance, reading this online discussion can help because you will learn the eight top-rated garden tillers’ specifications and buyers’ comments. Therefore, you will find it effortless to select the machine that suits your lawn.
Top 8 Best Garden Tillers Reviewed
- Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter – Best Overall
- Schiller Grounds Care Mantis 4-Cycle Plus Tiller and Cultivator – Best Value
- Black and Decker Garden Tiller and Cultivator – Editor’s Choice
- Yard Butler Garden Twist Tiller
- Tacklife Electric Tiller and Cultivator
- American Lawnmower Company Earthwise Tiller and Cultivator
- Sun Joe Electric Garden Tiller and Cultivator
- 1 #1. Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter – Best Overall
- 2 #2. Schiller Grounds Care Mantis 4-Cycle Plus Tiller and Cultivator – Best Value
- 3 #3. Black and Decker Garden Tiller and Cultivator – Editor’s Choice
- 4 #4. Yard Butler Garden Twist Tiller
- 5 #5. Tacklife Electric Tiller and Cultivator
- 6 #6. American Lawnmower Company Earthwise Tiller and Cultivator
- 7 #7. Sun Joe Electric Garden Tiller and Cultivator
- 8 #8. Greenworks Corded Tiller and Cultivator
- 9 The Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter
- 10 3 Different Kinds of Garden Tillers
- 11 I am an avid gardener residing in an exclusive, gated village. I wish not to bother my neighbors with my gardening passion, so I need a quiet garden tiller. Which model should I buy?
- 12 How deep do garden tillers dig?
- 13 Is it essential for me to use a counterweight when using a garden tiller?
- 14 Related posts:
#1. Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter – Best Overall
- Prevents back and knee pains
- Includes Hole Digger, Weeder, Tiller, two extension rods, and essential hardware
- Expertly engineered and durable gardening tool that can easily connect to portable or cordless drill or screwdriver
- 36-inch shaft lets you operate this garden tiller from a distance
- Secure and patented stabilizer prevents the garden tiller from jumping around
- For planting annuals, bulbs, and flats while standing, as well as the elimination of roots and grown weeds, fast garden soil and flower bed tilling and aeration, and seeds planting and transplanting
The Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter is more than a 3-in-1 gardening tool. You will love this product because it is, in fact, an efficient, all-in-one gardening gadget that makes garden work effortless.
You can rediscover your joy and favorite gardening hobby with this product because this all-in-one gardening machine has three features or “heads” included in the kit. The Tiller or tilling head aerates and tills the soil’s top while keeping moisture locked in. Meanwhile, the Hole Digger is for digging perfect-size holes for planting bulbs and seeds rapidly and easily. Finally, the Weed Out or Weeder eliminates the whole root and grown weed all in one go.
As you can see, the Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter lets you tackle all your gardening tasks effortlessly. It comes with two extension rods and all the important hardware, too. This convenient garden tiller can easily connect to your portable, 12-Volt cordless power drill and screwdriver.
The Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter manufacturer’s main aim is for avid gardeners like you to say farewell forever to painful back and knee pains. Thus, they created this ultimate and expertly engineered tilling, planting, and weeding tool. The Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter is perfect for senior citizens, arthritis patients, injured gardeners, and other gardening aficionados.
|Very easy to assemble with visual instructions included||Minor buyer complaint about the garden tiller’s hex on the drill shaft wearing down
|Effectively prevents back pains |
#2. Schiller Grounds Care Mantis 4-Cycle Plus Tiller and Cultivator – Best Value
- Dependable, premium-quality, powerful, and easy-starting Honda four-cycle engine
- Uniquely designed, curvy tines help this garden tiller dig deep even into the hardest soil
- Useful in all seasons, easy to use, and tough enough to till through sod and compacted garden soil
- Easy to carry and lightweight at merely 24 pounds
- Versatile, perfect for lawns and gardens of all sizes, and works as a fantastic power-weeder
- Compact and sleek design, making it effortless to use in tight locations, in raised beds, and along fences where large tillers cannot go
You will agree that the Schiller Grounds Care Mantis 4-Cycle Plus Tiller and Cultivator is among the best garden tillers today. First of all, if you are looking for a piece of garden maintenance equipment that is small, quiet, and easy to start, this product is the real deal! The Mantis 4-Cycle Plus Tiller and Cultivator features Honda’s premium-quality, dependable, and powerful four-cycle engine.
This advantage makes this high-quality garden tiller tough enough to till through compacted soil and sod. The Mantis, indeed, delivers maximum performance with its minimum weight. This product is a lightweight powerhouse that is easy to carry because it is merely 24 pounds light. Plus, it has an ingenious transmission gear design, generating maximum speed for cultivating and digging.
Moreover, the Schiller Grounds Care Mantis 4-Cycle Plus Tiller and Cultivator will give you better soil that is improved gardening’s foundation via its 9-inch tilling width and 10-inch tilling depth. You can also reverse the tines to cultivate 2 to 3 inches deep shallowly. The uniquely designed, curvy tine geometry assists the Mantis in digging deep, even into the hardest soil, rather than bounce around like other small tillers.
Furthermore, the Schiller Grounds Care Mantis 4-Cycle Plus Tiller and Cultivator is easy to use. You do not have to mix oil, fuel, or gas to utilize it. Besides, it is sleek and compact at merely 9 inches wide. You will find this gardening maintenance machine supremely comfortable to use, thanks to its over-molded, soft, Sure-Grip comfort handles. They are ergonomically flared, letting you relish fatigue-free operation and maximum wrist comfort even when you till rocky soil. The fold-down handles allow you to transport and store the Mantis conveniently as well.
The versatile garden tiller and cultivator by Schiller Grounds Care can serve as an excellent power weeder by turning the special tines around. Additionally, it is perfect to use all season long for gardens of all sizes. The Schiller Grounds Care Mantis 4-Cycle Plus Tiller and Cultivator works effortlessly where large tillers are not applicable, such as in raised beds, tight locations, and along fences.
|Chews through nearly all organic materials fed to it||Minor buyer complaint about the new garden tiller not starting
|Powerful and excellent tilling performance|
|Small and compact |
|Easy to use|
#3. Black and Decker Garden Tiller and Cultivator – Editor’s Choice
- Ideal for cultivating landscape and garden beds and weeding, with depth capacity of 4 inches deep and width capacity of 7 inches wide
- Prepares lawns’ dead and dry spots for seeding and existing garden beds for planting
- 20-Volt, Lithium-ion battery-powered cultivator that ensures long battery life and facilitates the cultivation of 350 square feet of planted beds between charges
- Two counter-oscillating tines prevent weeds from tangling
- Eco-friendly and facilitates zero emissions in yards, aiding in the reduction of carbon footprints
- Cordless power allows easy and fast soil aeration and weeding
You will enjoy using the Black and Decker Garden Tiller and Cultivator for your garden. This top-rated garden tiller has cordless power that enables you to perform easy and fast soil aeration and weeding. Additionally, this electric garden and lawn equipment comes with a smart charger, and a 20-Volt MAX Lithium-ion battery powers it. Thus, you can cultivate up to 350 square feet of planted beds between charges. You can also feel assured of long-lasting battery life.
The Black and Decker Garden Tiller and Cultivator is one of the best garden tillers today. Buyers love it because it is comfortable to use, thanks to the soft-grip handle, adjustable handle, and telescoping tube that also facilitate this tool’s adjustability. Plus, the garden cultivator and tiller by Black and Decker features an upright and lightweight design. Therefore, when you cultivate your garden, you do not have to worry about arm fatigue anymore.
Furthermore, Black and Decker’s battery-powered garden cultivator and tiller has a width capacity of 7 inches wide and a depth capacity of 4 inches deep. Its two counter-oscillating tines prevent weeds from tangling. This product is also eco-friendly, thanks to its assistance in reducing your carbon footprint and releasing zero emissions in your garden.
The Black and Decker Garden Tiller and Cultivator prepares your lawn’s dead and dry spots for seeding. Additionally, it makes existing gardens ready for planting. The Black and Decker Garden Tiller and Cultivator is perfect for cultivating landscape and garden beds and weeding.
|Amazing for planting or loosening hard-packed dirt||Minor customer complaint about the battery and charger not included in the package
|Easy to hold and comfortable to use|
|Prevents backaches for gardeners|
|Ideal for small planting jobs|
- 38-inch tall, heavy-duty, ergonomic, and all-steel design built for a lifetime of use
- Wide, 12-inch T-handle makes this hand tool with unbreakable tines reduce the effort of twisting
- Works as a claw weeder, aeration tool, and cultivator that promotes water, fertilizer, and air’s free flow, making gardens and yards wholesome and beautiful
- Weight-centering, middle step plate and high, extra-wide leverage handle drive six claw spikes deep into the ground, facilitating easy planting and weeding by breaking up hard and compacted topsoil
- Ideal for adding soil amendments, mixing compost, digging holes for planting, preparing garden beds for planting, easy weeding, and mixing fertilizer or peat moss amendments
- Perfect for preparing raised bed gardens for flowers and vegetables, flower boxes, around bushes or shrubs, and other hard-to-reach locations
If you have been looking for a better option when it comes to garden tillers, you should purchase the Yard Butler Garden Twist Tiller. You will undoubtedly feel impressed with this 38-inch-tall gardening machine with a heavy-duty, ergonomic, and all-steel design built for a lifetime of use.
Additionally, the Yard Butler Garden Twist Tiller comes with a wide, 12-inch T-handle that reduces your twisting effort. This best garden tiller and hand cultivator delivers exceptional value and quality, featuring a solid, 0.5-inch powder-coated steel shaft.
The extra-wide and high leverage handle and the weight-centering middle step plate drive six claw spikes deep into the ground. They break up the soil’s compacted and hard top layer.
Moreover, these advantageous features of the Yard Butler Garden Twist Tiller facilitate effortless planting and weeding. The Yard Butler Garden Twist Tiller functions best as an aeration gadget, claw weeder, and cultivator. It promotes the free flow of air, water, and fertilizer, making your garden or yard beautiful and wholesome. This excellent garden tiller is ideal for preparing raised bed gardens for flowers or vegetables, flower boxes, around bushes or shrubs, and other hard-to-reach locations.
The Yard Butler Garden Twist Tiller is ideal for making weeding easy, mixing compost, fertilizer, or peat moss amendments, and adding soil amendments. This highly rated gardening machine is also highly recommended for digging holes and preparing a bed for planting.
|Excellent performance in light and small-space gardening||Minor buyer complaint about this garden tiller breaking down
|Powerful in breaking up compact soil|
|Helpful footplate and twisted tines |
|Well-built and great quality|
- Electric tiller and cultivator with adjustable tilling width from 18 to 12.5 inches wide and an 8-inch tilling depth, meeting gardeners’ various work needs
- Powerful, highly efficient, and stable 13.5-Ampere copper motor delivers high conversion and low loss, generating heavy-duty power and continuous output
- Hard and tough Manganese steel tines, guaranteeing stable performance and maximum durability
- Lightweight and user-friendly design, with merely 22 pounds of weight, facilitating more mobility in the garden
- Ergonomic folding handlebar features an anti-vibration system, reducing arm fatigue
- Ideal for planting, soil-loosening, and bed preparation in the vegetable plot, yard, and garden
The Tacklife Electric Tiller and Cultivator is one of the convenient electric tillers available today. Buyers have praised it as one of the best garden tillers in the market because it has a 13.5-Ampere copper motor that is highly efficient, powerful, and stable.
Additionally, this advantage facilitates the high conversion and low loss. Hence, this excellent garden equipment can generate heavy-duty power and continuous output with its easy, plug-and-go operation. The Tacklife Electric Tiller and Cultivator can meet any avid gardener’s needs as well via its adjustable tilling width from 18 to 12.5 inches wide and an 8-inch tilling depth.
The tough and hard Manganese steel tines guarantee that you enjoy the stable performance and maximum durability with this outstanding product. The Tacklife Electric Tiller and Cultivator is merely 22 pounds light, and this lightweight and user-friendly design lets you work in your garden with more mobility. The ergonomic folding handlebar comes with an anti-vibration system and less noise, reducing arm fatigue effectively.
The electric tiller and cultivator by Tacklife is compact, offering space-saving and convenient transportation and storage. This nature of the excellent garden maintenance machine also ensures cleanliness. Meanwhile, the safety button with an on-and-off trigger starts the machine, while the brake switches provide gardeners double protection against accidental starts. The Tacklife Electric Tiller and Cultivator is a fantastic option for loosening soil, planting, and bed preparation in the yard, garden, and vegetable plot.
|Fast performance in small gardens and flower beds||Few buyers complained about this garden tiller suddenly shutting off after a few minutes of use
|Easy to use in soil preparation|
|Features an adjustable height|
- Highly efficient and powerful motor delivers superior robustness, sturdiness, and run time
- Cordless and lightweight design for easy operation and storage and relaxed cultivation
- Comprises a 20-Volt, 2Ah Lithium-ion battery, and fast charger
- Soft-grip, ergonomic and adjustable auxiliary handles facilitate comfortable use
- A weed control tool ideal for making garden and flower bed soil fertile
- Tills and cultivates soil up to 6 inches deep and 7.5 inches wide
One of the best garden tillers you can buy today is the Earthwise Tiller and Cultivator by the American Lawnmower Company. This highly rated gardening machine is a cordless handheld cultivator and tiller. It comes in a cordless and lightweight design. Thus, you can relish effortless operations and storage with it and zero fatigue while you cultivate your garden’s soil.
Moreover, the American Lawnmower Company Earthwise Tiller and Cultivator has four durable steel tines, a fast charger, and a 20-Volt, 2Ah Lithium-ion battery. You will find this excellent garden tiller as highly durable with superior run-time and power, thanks to its robust and highly efficient motor. With the single-lever switch, the Earthwise Tiller and Cultivator by the American Lawnmower Company begins working right away.
You will also find two handles in this gardening machine: the soft-grip and ergonomic handle and the adjustable auxiliary one. Both of them let you enjoy a comfortable garden tilling experience. The American Lawnmower Company Earthwise Tiller and Cultivator can till and cultivate soils of up to 6 inches deep and 7.5 inches wide.
In all gardens, it functions amazingly as a weed control tool as well. The American Lawnmower Company Earthwise Tiller and Cultivator is an eco-friendly alternative to gas-powered garden and lawn equipment. You will appreciate it for being fantastic in turning the soil in flower beds and gardens into fertile ones.
|Fast-charging and long-lasting battery||Minor buyer complaint about the package lacking wing nuts and screws bolts
|Easy to assemble and maneuver|
|Perfect for home gardens|
- Powerful, 13.5-Ampere motor pulverizes dirt fast, slices through the soil effortlessly, and ensures maximum soil aeration
- In seconds, the machine quickly cultivates gardens measuring 8 inches deep and 16 inches wide
- Height-adjustable, 3-position rear wheels for effortless maneuvering where needed
- Six sturdy steel angled tines for maximum performance and durability
- Controls weeds where necessary
- Maintenance-free garden tiller that makes gardening task green, clean, and comfortable
You can bid tedious gardening tasks farewell with the Sun Joe Electric Garden Tiller and Cultivator. This top-rated garden tiller is undoubtedly up to the laborious task of tilling. Buyers have labeled it as the best garden tiller available today because it can tame the toughest garden and yard jobs, making them more comfortable and less exhausting to do for you.
Moreover, the Sun Joe Electric Garden Tiller and Cultivator features a powerful, 13.5-Ampere motor that effortlessly slices through the soil, pulverizes dirt fast, and ensures maximum soil aeration. Hence, you get a seedbed perfectly ready for planting.
Additionally, in seconds, you can expect the highly-rated electric garden tiller and cultivator by Sun Joe to cultivate areas measuring 8 inches deep and 16 inches wide. You will appreciate choosing the Sun Joe Electric Garden Tiller and Cultivator because it is easy to use and maintenance-free. It is a cleaner and greener gardening technique with six dependable steel angled tines that deliver maximum performance and durability.
Plus, the Sun Joe Electric Garden Tiller and Cultivator, which controls weeds where necessary, is maneuverable, easy to transport, and convenient to store. These advantages are due to the manufacturer’s inclusion of a collapsible or foldable handle and the three-position, height-adjustable rear wheels.
|Easy to adjust and control||Minor buyer complaint about the garden tiller’s design
- Powerful, 8-Ampere motor eliminates the need for batteries and charging them, facilitating an easy plug-and-go operation
- Two outer tines and two inner tines facilitate the easy loosening of the soil
- Quick and dependable tilling via the adjustable tilling width from 10 to 8.25 inches wide
- Even cultivating facilitated by the machine’s adjustable height, enabling tilling depths of up to 5 inches deep
- 6-inch, height-adjustable tires for effortless transportation and handling
- Less noise and facilitates smooth operations
If you want smooth garden tilling and cultivating times and minimal noise, you should try the Greenworks Corded Tiller and Cultivator. This highly rated garden tiller and cultivator will provide you with the relaxing gardening time you want.
Additionally, the Greenworks Corded Tiller and Cultivator features reliable and constant power. It has a robust, 8-Ampere motor that saves you from the need to use batteries and charging them. The Greenworks Corded Tiller and Cultivator is an easy, plug-and-go machine that digs through tough soil effectively.
Plus, this product has two outer and two inner tines that facilitate the soil’s easy loosening. You will truly get your hard-earned money’s value because the Greenworks Corded Tiller and Cultivator has an adjustable tilling width from 10 to 8.25 inches wide, enabling you to relish dependable and fast tilling.
Furthermore, this highly-rated garden tiller and cultivator’s adjustable height facilitates the tilling depths of up to 5 inches deep, letting you enjoy even cultivating. The Greenworks Corded Tiller and Cultivator is convenient to use, thanks to the easy, fold-down handle for easy storage. Plus, this piece of gardening equipment comes with 6-inch, height-adjustable tires that let you handle and transport it effortlessly.
|Easy to assemble with clear instructions||Few buyers complained about the garden tiller malfunctioning after merely a few times of use
|Works well on layers of harder ground|
|Easy to use|
The Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter
The Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter has made it atop this article’s list of the best garden tillers available today. This outstanding garden maintenance tool is the best garden tiller overall because, first of all, it will make any gardening aficionado’s life easier!
The Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter is all-around. It can help you plant seeds, dig holes for new seeds, and assist you in transplanting. Additionally, this best garden tiller of all time can help you eliminate grown weeds and roots. It will make your garden beautiful for the long haul because it can aerate and till your garden soil and flower bed easily and fast, preventing weed growth effectively.
Besides its great capabilities, the Drill Till gardening machine has two extension rods and essential hardware. You can easily connect it to a portable or cordless drill or screwdriver. Moreover, the Drill Till garden tiller will save you from painful knees and back pains. No wonder it is the top choice among gardeners who are injured people, senior citizens, arthritis patients, and many other gardening lovers! With these impressive benefits of the Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter, you should select it and see for yourself now!
3 Different Kinds of Garden Tillers
As a novice gardener, you may need help selecting which type of garden tiller to use on your lawn. The following machines are the three different kinds of rototillers available. Learn about them to discover which one is the right piece of gardening equipment for your garden.
ELECTRIC TILLER CULTIVATOR
This machine is very popular among homeowners. It is the kind of garden tiller that is the smallest, lightest, and most affordable. Electric tiller cultivators typically feature electric or gas-powered motors.
You should purchase this gardening machine if you need to perform deep-tilling of your garden’s soil to make it ready for growing grass and plants. Additionally, the electric tiller cultivator is ideal for shallow-mixing of already-tilled soil, mixing in compost, and weed removal. You should buy this gardening equipment if you will till small spaces, raised beds, or rows.
FRONT TINE TILLER
Most of these mid-duty gardening machines are gas-powered. If you till hard soil and large areas, you should avail of a front tine tiller. You will find them effective and comfortable to use for these purposes.
Furthermore, front tine tillers are ideal for cultivating and breaking ground. They look similar to garden cultivators, but they are larger and capable of digging deeper. Front tine tillers are perfect for loosening firm soil or breaking moderately-hard ground.
REAR TINE TILLER
This kind of garden tiller is an authentic workhorse. A rear tine tiller is the most powerful of all the garden tiller choices available. It may be the largest and the heaviest, yet it is the most efficient, most comfortable, and easiest garden tiller to use.
The rear tine tiller is ideal for digging large gardens and plots, breaking new ground, and tilling heavy clay soil and tough ground. It loosens or breaks rocky soils and very hard ground before you work on them using a front tine or mini tiller.
Moreover, rear tine tillers are self-propelled. You simply need to stand behind or beside them. Then, you can steer the unit while it churns the ground at a steady pace. If you can afford a rear-tine tiller, you can utilize it for small and medium-sized plots, too.
The electric tiller cultivator, front tine tiller, and rear tine tiller are the three kinds of garden tillers from which you can choose. If you already know the type of ground you will be working on your lawn, selecting from the three will not be challenging for you. Plus, tilling your garden will be effortless.
The best garden tiller prepares your garden for planting new grass and plants during spring and summer. As a gardener, you benefit from utilizing this gardening machine because it effectively digs, mixes, and breaks up compact and hard soil, making it ready for use.
This article featured the Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter as the best garden tiller overall. It bested the other seven products because, first of all, it is convenient. It is a multi-purpose gardening machine that can assist in all types of tasks in the yard or garden.
Additionally, the Drill Till 3-Tools-in-1 Tiller, Weeder, and Planter facilitates pain-free and enjoyable gardening experiences, making it the top choice among gardening enthusiasts from all walks of life, circumstances, and age brackets.
Finding the best garden tiller should not be a problem for you. After all, online reviews like this informative article abound. You can also ask around in brick and mortar stores to learn more fantastic options you can select.
Have a wonderful time shopping for one of the best garden tillers today!
FAQs (Frequently Asked Question)
I am an avid gardener residing in an exclusive, gated village. I wish not to bother my neighbors with my gardening passion, so I need a quiet garden tiller. Which model should I buy?
As a homeowner, you should avail of a corded or battery-powered electric garden tiller. Your neighbors will not complain about any noise because this model runs almost completely silent. Plus, a corded or battery-powered electric garden tiller does not produce any emissions, making it an eco-friendly option. It is easy to maintain as well.
Meanwhile, it would help if you avoid gas-powered garden tillers. Contractors or farmers typically use these heavy-duty machines. If you mistakenly avail of a gas-powered garden tiller, a few moments later, after firing it up on your lawn, you will surely find your neighbors yelling at you due to the annoying and unwelcome noise.
How deep do garden tillers dig?
A garden tiller’s digging depth depends mainly on the machine’s motor power, weight, and tines’ length. Typical garden tillers that homeowners use can cut to a depth measuring 7 inches deep in most cases. This dimension is more than sufficient to give your grass’s roots all the air they require to grow while enhancing your lawn’s drainage.
Is it essential for me to use a counterweight when using a garden tiller?
A counterweight adds stability to the garden tiller by giving more weight over the wheels and cutting decks. It prevents the gardening maintenance machine from jumping around when being used.
Some garden tillers feature a counterweight to develop the machine’s digging depth. Nevertheless, counterweights are merely needed on rear tine tillers used to break new ground in most cases.